Comparative calibration vs. fixed point calibration

In temperature calibration technology, there are two methods of calibration ? the comparative calibration and the fixed point calibration. The method of calibration to be used will undoubtedly be defined through the demands on the accuracy and the sort of test instrument. The comparative method represents the most widely used approach to calibration.
So how do the comparative calibration and fixed point calibration methods differ? Utilizing the example of calibrating a resistance thermometer, this website article explains both methods and thus tries to convey to the reader a better understanding.
The comparative calibration
As the name already implies, this kind of calibration is carried out by comparing the resistance thermometer being tested with a higher-quality reference thermometer. The higher-quality reference should thus exhibit an accuracy of three or four times higher than the thermometer being tested. Both thermometers are put right into a single homogenous temperature source. When placing the thermometers, care ought to be taken to ensure a small distance between them and that the sensitive points (meaning the measuring points) are at exactly the same height. As a temperature source, liquid baths or dry-well calibrators are usually used.
The fixed point calibration
The fixed point calibration, in contrast to the comparative calibration, is completed against the defined triple, freezing and melting points from the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). The fixed points define temperatures of which the physical state of substances alter. The most crucial fixed point of the ITS-90 may be the triple point of water. At a temperature of 0.010 �C the physical state of high-purity water is continually changing between steam, ice and liquid water. The levels of the physical states always stay in proportion. Generally, only national laboratories or laboratories qualifying for really small measurement uncertainties work with these fixed-point cells, as these are costly and specialised limited to this application. เพรสเชอร์เกจ (platinum resistance thermometers), which will be used as reference thermometers, are calibrated utilizing the fixed point method. The reference sensor is inserted right into a closed, or also open fixed-point cell, which holds the temperature constant over a long period.
Example: fixed points from -189 to 660 �C in accordance with ITS-90:
Fixed point
Triple point of argon
-189,3442 �C
Triple point of mercury
-38,8344 �C
Triple point of water
0,01 �C
Melting point of gallium
29,7646 �C
Freezing point of indium
156,5985 �C
Freezing point of tin
231,928 �C
Freezing point of zinc
419,527 �C
Freezing point of aluminium
660,323 �C
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